# Lojic Technologies

## Chapter 4 – Functions

Lambda expressions are written as:

`fn var : typ => exp`

For example:

```fn x : real => Math.sqrt (Math.sqrt x)
(fn x : real => Math.sqrt (Math.sqrt x)) (16.0)
val fourthroot : real -> real =
fn x : real => Math.sqrt (Math.sqrt x)
fourthroot 16.0```

ML provides a special syntax for function bindings that’s more concise:

`fun fourthroot (x:real):real = Math.sqrt (Math.sqrt x)`

By experimenting (I expect this is covered later), I found the following is sufficient due to type inference:

```fun fourthroot x = Math.sqrt (Math.sqrt x)
```

Local val bindings may shadow parameters and other val bindings. For example, in the following, the last occurrence of x refers to the parameter of h, but the preceding two occurrences of x refer to the local binding with a value of 2.0:

```fun h(x:real):real =
let val x:real = 2.0 in x+x end * x```

## Chapter 5 – Products and Records

The n-tuple is the simplest form of aggregate data structure. They are of the form:
(val1, … ,valn)
An n-tuple is a value of a product type of the form:
typ1* … *typn
For example:

```val pair : int * int = (2, 3)
val triple : int * real * string = (2, 2.0, "2")
val pair_of_pairs : (int * int) * (real * real) = ((2,3),(2.0,3.0))```

A 0-tuple, also known as a null tuple, is the empty sequence of values, ( ). It is a value of type unit. 1-tuples are absent from the language.

### Tuple Patterns

We can use pattern matching to extract portions of an n-tuple. For example, in the code snippet below, r will be equal to 3.14. Underscores indicate “don’t care” positions:

```val foo : (int * string) * (real * char) = ((7,"hello"),(3.14,#"z"))
val ((_, _), (r:real, _)) = foo```

We can give names to the first and second components of the pair – using the REPL:

```- val (is:int*string,rc:real*char) = foo;
val is = (7,"hello") : int * string
val rc = (3.14,#"z") : real * char```

A pattern is one of three forms:

1. A variable pattern of the form var : typ
2. A tuple pattern of the form (pat1, …, patn), where each pati is a pattern. This includes as a special case the null-tuple pattern, ()
3. A wildcard pattern of the form _

### Record Types

Tuples can become more difficult to use as the number of elements increases. Record types allow labeling each component. A record type has the form:
{ lab1:typ1, …, labn:typn}
A record value has the form:
{ lab1=val1, …, labn=valn}
A record pattern has the form:
{ lab1=pat1, …, labn=patn}

For example, the record type hyperlink is defined as follows:

```type hyperlink =
{ protocol : string,
display  : string }
```

The following record binding defines a variable of type hyperlink:

```val mailto : hyperlink =
{ protocol = "mailto",
```

The following record binding:

```val { protocol=prot, display=disp, address=addr } = mailto
```

decomposes into the three variable bindings:

```val prot = "mailto"
```

We can use wildcard to extract selected fields:

```val {protocol=prot, address=_, display=_ } = mailto
```

However, this isn’t very helpful with many fields, so we can use ellipsis patterns:

```val {protocol=prot, ... } = mailto
```

ML provides an abbreviated form of record pattern {lab1,…labn} which stands for { lab1=var1, …, labn=varn} where the variables have the same name as the corresponding labels. For example, the following:

```val { protocol, address, display } = mailto
```

decomposes into these bindings:

```val protocol = "mailto"
```

### Multiple Arguments and Multiple Results

```fun dist (x:real, y:real):real = sqrt (x*x + y*y)
```

Keyword parameters are supported through record patterns:

```fun dist’ {x=x:real, y=y:real} = sqrt (x*x + y*y)
```

Invoked as follows:

```dist' {x=2.0,y=3.0}
```

Functions with multiple results may be thought of as functions yield tuples (or records).

```fun dist2 (x:real, y:real):real*real
= (sqrt (x*x+y*y), abs(x-y))
```

Sharp notation allows us to conveniently access the Nth item in a tuple.

```- val foo = (3,7,5,2);
val foo = (3,7,5,2) : int * int * int * int
- #3 foo;
val it = 5 : int
```

A similar notation is used for record field selection:

``` - val foo = { name = "Brian", phone = "555-1212" };
val foo = {name="Brian",phone="555-1212"} : {name:string, phone:string}
- #name foo;
val it = "Brian" : string
```

However, Harper states, “Use of the sharp notation is strongly discouraged!

May 2, 2009 at 8:51 pm

Posted in programming

Tagged with

## Programming in Standard ML – Part 1

The posts in this series will be notes & highlights from working through “Programming in Standard ML” by Robert Harper. See Getting Started with Standard ML for a link to the PDF. I may not always use quotes in this series, but it should be assumed that any factual information about Standard ML that I write in this series has been obtained from the PDF above – this series is, in effect, a summarization of Robert Harper’s PDF.

## Overview

Attributes of Standard ML:

• Type-safe programming language
• Statically typed
• Extensible type system
• Polymorphic type inference
• Automatic storage management
• Encourages functional (effect-free) programming
• Allows imperative (effect-ful) programming where appropriate
• Pattern matching
• Extensible exception mechanism for handling error conditions
• Expressive and flexible module system
• Portable due to its precise definition • Portable standard basis library

## Chapter 1 – Programming in Standard ML

This chapter provides a brief overview of the language by considering an implementation of a regular expression package. It was slightly more familiar to me because of my brief studies of Haskell; otherwise, I think it would’ve appeared very foreign. I prefer more of a bottom up approach as much as possible instead of looking at language features that haven’t been described.

### Currying

I do think that currying & partial application are cool features. Consider the following function declaration:

`val match : RegExp.regexp -> string -> bool`

Coming from a non-currying background, I would describe match as a function that accepts a regular expression and a string, and returns a boolean value indicating whether the string matches the regular expression, but Robert describes it this way:

It contains a function match that, when given a regular expression, returns a function that determines whether or not a given string matches that expression.

This was one of the features that made a strong impression on me when I first started looking at functional programming languages.

## Chapter 2 – Types, Values, and Effects

Computation in ML is of a somewhat different nature. The emphasis in ML is on computation by evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands.

An expressions has three characteristics:

• It may or may not have a type
• It may or may not have a value
• It may or may not create an effect

Effects will be ignored until chapter 13, so until then, it’s assumed that all expressions are effect-free, or pure. A type is defined by specifying three things:

• a name for the type,
• the values of the type, and
• the operations that may be performed on values of the type

Notes:

• Negative numbers, as literals, are indicated with a tilde instead of a hypen e.g. ~7
• div is used for integers, / for reals

A typing assertion has the form: exp : typ For example: 3 : int 4 div 3 : int ML does not perform any implicit conversions between types. Use real(3) + 4.3, or 3 + round(4.3) Conditional expression (exp1 and exp2 must have the same type): if exp then exp1 else exp2 if not exp then exp1 else exp2

## Chapter 3 – Declarations

Once a variable is bound to a value, it is bound to it for life; there is no possibility of changing the binding of a variable once it has been bound. Examples of type bindings:

```type float = real
type count = int and average = real```

Examples of value bindings:

```val m : int = 3+2
val pi : real = 3.14 and e : real = 2.17```

One thing to keep in mind is that binding is not assignment. The binding of a variable never changes; once bound to a value, it is always bound to that value (within the scope of the binding). However, we may shadow a binding by introducing a second binding for a variable within the scope of the ﬁrst binding.

Limiting scope with let expressions:

```let
val m : int = 3
val n : int = m*m
in
m*n
end```

The following expression evaluates to 54 because the binding of m is temporarily overridden during the evaluation of the let expression, then restored upon completion of this evaluation:

```val m : int = 2
val r : int =
let
val m : int = 3
val n : int = m*m
in
m*n
end * m```

May 2, 2009 at 7:45 pm

Posted in programming

Tagged with

## Getting Started with Standard ML

with one comment

One of the two parallel tracks in my 2009 Programming Language Plan begins with the Standard ML programming language, so it’s time to get started.

## Standard ML Resources

### Books

Since I was unfamiliar with the Standard ML programming language, I was surprised to find there are a number of good books about the language. Following are just some of them:

Elements of ML Programming ML for the Working Programmer Purely Functional Data Structures The Definition of Standard ML The Standard ML Basis Library Introduction to Programming using SML Concurrent Programming in ML

### Other Educational Materials

Programming in Standard ML – excellent online book by Robert Harper of Carnegie Mellon University. Since I don’t know if Standard ML will simply be a stepping stone to Haskell (which in turn may not be a primary language for me) or a language I invest a lot of time in, I’m going to restrict myself from my normal method of purchasing a book or two when learning a new language. Instead, I’ll be going through Harper’s online book initially.

## Hello World

There are a number of great compilers for Standard ML (listed above), but I only need one to get started, so I chose Standard ML of New Jersey despite the funky name. It’s a popular version, and it has a REPL, so it’s good enough for me for now.

I develop software on Mac OSX and deploy on Ubuntu Linux. On my Ubuntu server, installing SML/NJ was as simple as:

```sudo apt-get install smlnj
```

On Mac OSX, there are a couple of options listed on this page. I could use a pre-built system or the generic Unix install, so naturally I chose the generic Unix install which installed easily according to the simple directions.

```# Download config.tgz
tar xzf config.tgz
config/install.sh

# Wait for install to complete

~/software/smlnj\$ rlwrap bin/sml
Standard ML of New Jersey v110.69 [built: Sat May  2 12:04:08 2009]
- print "hello, worldn";
hello, world
val it = () : unit
-```

Great, looks like everything is working fine. Note, I use the rlwrap utility to provide a nicer REPL experience, but it’s not required.

I’ll continue with a series of posts with notes from working through “Programming in Standard ML”.